M - m

maa   vambi. grate using fatma e.g. grate vegetable onto leaves to make laplap. See: trai.

maaf   vintr. open, as of a flower or start, as of a war, burst, as of a boil.

maag1   vintr. open, be open, of a door, or a clam shell, or one's mouth.

maag2   vintr. stare, look at (e.g. a performance), admire (and see maag 'to be open').

maagko   n. mango. Category: plants.

m̃aak   vintr. peep.

m̃aal   adj. smooth, of a coconut, the outside cleaned well.

m̃aalm̃aal   adj. clear.

p̃au m̃aalm̃aal   bald. See: p̃aukaplat; p̃aum̃osu.

maal   n. hawk (type of bird). Category: birds.

maalep1   n. widow. See: p̃ut; pakmaalep. Category: human relations.

maalep2   vintr. observe five days after death. See: up̃lim.

maama   v. sharpen. See: pkal; faatmaama. Category: human artefact.

maar   n. fish sp. Fusilier (Common mojarra). Category: aquatic creatures.

m̃aarak   adj. clever, work hard.

maarik   n. husband.

1 • husband. Category: human relations.

2 • mister, term of respect.

3 • spirit, respectful way of referring to a male spirit. See: natopu. Category: other supernatural.

maariktaku   n. brother-in-law. Category: human relations.

maarikwi   n. fish sp. Indo-Pacific bonefish. Albula glossodonta. Category: aquatic creatures.

maas   vintr. cooked, to be.

maasp̃ok   vintr. undercooked.

m̃aat   n. snake. Category: other animals.

maat   vintr. low tide. See: mu nmaat.

nmaat   n. low tide.

nmaat ni p̃ulp̃og   n. low tide in the morning.

nmaat ni kotfan   n. low tide in the afternoon. See: mat; mu.

m̃aau   n. giant, strong man. Category: human relations.

maet   vintr. angry, to get angry with.

maf   vintr. grow into.

m̃afei   v. grab something firmly, squeezing and lifting, like grabbing hold of hair when you are in a fight, or grabbing hold of a leaves of a plant.

mai   vintr. come, move towards.

aux. come.

dirpart. hither. Used as a directional particle to mean coming towards a location.

mailum   adj. 1 • quiet, slow. mailum fkar, giggle.

2 • soft, weak; mailum tkali, dab (touch gently).

3 • easy.

mak   v. don't know.

makol   n. sugarcane sp. Category: plants. See: nap̃rai; trares; tukmel; nafakton.

makos   n. Sandalwood. Santalum austrocaledonicum. Category: plants.

makot   vintr. broken.

makur   See main entry: mokur.

mal1   n. 1 • time.

mal sees   n. awhile. Category: temporal.

2 • hour.

3 • weather. Category: natural features.

mal2   vintr. refuse, not want to.

aux. not want.

m̃aler   adj. calm (of the sea).

malfane   Variant: malfanen. now.

adv. now, the time at which the event takes place. In a story set in the past, malfane refers to that time rather than the time when the story is told.

malier   vintr. shame, be ashamed.

malig   vintr. spilled, to be spilled.

malik   Variant: nmalik. dark. Variant: nmalko.

n. dark.

m̃alit   vintr. bang, explode.

malmal1   Variant: malamal. n. grass skirt. Category: human artefact.

malmal2   n. section, part, e.g. between knots of bamboo or cane.

m̃alm̃al   n adj. 1 • clearing, a cleared area of land.

2 • clean place, also used in p̃au m̃alm̃al.

malnen   Variant: malran. then. Variant: malnran; malen.

adv. 1 • then.

2 • as, at the time when.

malogot   n. fish sp. Blackspot snapper. Not eaten due to ciguetera, (mam). Category: aquatic creatures.

maloput   prep. middle.

m̃alosak   vintr. look up.

malpa   n. clearing, space between things.

malp̃al   n. coward. Category: human relations.

malpei   adv. before, a long time ago.

malp̃erik   Variant: mlap̃erik. n. goshawk or falcon (type of bird), which flies very quickly. Category: birds.

maltali   n. club, type of club or hitting stick. Category: human artefact.

m̃altelit   v. crack, as in the noise made by a tree before it falls or a firecracker exploding.

maltotae   vambi. avoid, ignore.

mam1   pron. 1 • we, us. (1st person plural).

2 • ours (1st person plural possessive) (inclusive and exclusive). See: mom; nigmam.

mam2   vintr. ripe, to be.

mam3   vintr. poisoned, to be poisoned by, e.g. ciguetera. See: nmal.

mamis   adj. nearly ripe, to be. See: mam.

mamp̃ok   adj. half ripe, to be. See: mam.

man nap̃lo   n. Rufus brown pheasant dove (type of bird). Macropygia ???. Category: birds.

man ni nmalfa   n. aeroplane. Category: human artefact.

man1   n. bird (generic). Category: birds.

man got   n. blackbird. Category: birds, birds.

man2   num. uncountable, too many, also used in the idiomatic expression man go man, 'very many'. Category: numeral.

mana   quantifier. group.

1 • group, follows a word to define an expected group: apap mana, iak mana, mother and father, ati mana, 'grandmothers'.

2 • approximately, used after a time for example to say 'roughly at that time': tri klok mana - around three o'clock.

3 • 'and so on', or 'like that'.

m̃aniek   v. fiddle around purposefully.

manim̃at   n. bird, white sea bird, maybe albatross. Category: birds.

manin   v. feel dizzy from being up high, or the feeling you get being on a swing; vertigo.

maniot   n. manioc, cassava. The leaves are not generally eaten. Manihot esculenta. Category: plants.

mankerkrai   n. hawk, eagle (strong one) (type of bird). Category: birds.

mankotik   adj. wounded, to be.

manmon   n. roll of e.g. banana or manioc in island cabbage (called simboro in Bislama) cooked in a pot. See: nsem̃mantu.

manmun   n. prisoner, someone who is punished for a certain period of time but still has their rights as landowners, unlike nafit. See: nafit. Category: human relations.

manopnop   adj. round, perfect, to be. As of rocks for the oven, a fat child or an orange without marks on it.

manreu   vintr. thirst.

mantap̃arp̃ar   num. million. Category: numeral.

mantas   n. Brown booby (type of bird). Sula leucogaster plotus. Category: birds.

mantilsei   n. White breasted wood swallow (type of bird). Pachycephala pectoralis chlosurs ?. Category: birds.

mantu   n. flying fox. Category: other animals, birds.

maomao   vintr. tame.

1 • tame, make quiet.

2 • mediate.

maon   vintr. sweat, to. See: nmaono.

maos   vintr. tired, to be.

map̃el   vintr. bend in half, for example bend your knees up to your chest.

map̃er   n. fish sp. fish, small, good to eat but not everyone likes it, not good for asthmatics, has black and white markings. Swims with wel. Category: aquatic creatures.

map̃eriat   n. fish sp. Angelfishes. Pomacanthidae. See: tiftif. Category: aquatic creatures.

map̃or   vintr. broken.

map̃rap̃or   vintr. broken. See: p̃or.

mapul   n. Pacific Imperial Pigeon (type of bird). Ducula pacifica.

mapul ni ntaf   n. Pacific Mountain Pigeon. Ducula bakeri. Category: birds.

mar   vintr. breathe.

1 • breathe. See: nmar; marmar; marom̃iit. Category: body part or product.

2 • smell. See: nrog; nap̃o.

marmar   vintr. rest.

marom̃iit   n. asthma.

mas1   vambi. 1 • saw, cut wood (for example).

2 • circumcise. See: tfei.

3 • clean, peel (e.g. yam).

mas2   aux. must (from Bislama).

mas3   vintr. sweep. See: sertao.

m̃as   adv. only, just.

m̃asei   n. star. Category: natural features.

m̃asei lep ni pulp̃og   n. morning star. Category: natural features.

m̃asei lep ni kotfan   n. evening star. Category: natural features.

m̃asel   vambi. take out the rib of a leaf.

m̃asenrsenr   adj. slippery, to be.

m̃aser   vintr. hiccup.

m̃asm̃as   nothing.

masmes   n. knife. Category: human artefact.

masoksok   adj. firm, to be firm, solid. As in a well-built house.

masp̃rai   vambi. cut in half (e.g. peeled banana which one cooks).

masrot   vintr. destroy, be destroyed.

mat   vintr. die.

1 • die, be dead, nmaten - the dead body, mat karkar - really dead, matpel - half dead.

2 • low tide, to be low tide.

emat   n. grave. See: natmat; nmaten. Category: human artefact.

mateu   n. fish sp. Boxfishes, Trunkfishes and Puffers. Ostraciidae, Tetraodontidae. Category: aquatic creatures.

matit   adj. smooth.

1 • smooth, to be.

2 • flat.

matmal   vintr. faint, be unconscious.

m̃atoktok   n. strong, brave man.

matol   adj. thick, to be. As in a thick pile of things, but also as in a thick soup, or kava that has not been strained properly.

matool   n. tomorrow, the future. Category: temporal.

matu1   adj. right side. See: metmatu.

matu2   adj. ripe, to be.

matuktuk   vintr. wither.

matuktukurik   n. insect, black beetle-like insect with orange on the top of its back which eats whitewood of canoes. Category: insects, grubs etc..

matur   vintr. sleep.

maturkor   vambi. care for, watch over.

mau1   Variant: maui. 1 • adj. all, whole, everyone.

2 • quantifier. all.

mau2   particle. not. Used as the second part of a negation, following the verb phrase.

maumau   particle. used to emphasise the noun it follows, as in mp̃agon maumau 'at its very end'.

maur   adj. left side, left handed. See: armatu; arworksu. Category: body part or product.

m̃aur   n. fish sp. Slipmouth. Leiognathidae. Category: aquatic creatures.

maurkat   Variant: maurikat. mangrove.

n. mangrove, a small kind of mangrove, used for house posts and for the crossbeam of a canoe that holds the outrigger. Category: plants.

maus   adj. half dry, to be. As of wood.

me1   conj. but, after, and.

me2   vintr. flood.

meel   n. shade, shadow. See: al.

meer   n. moth. Category: insects, grubs etc..

mees   adv. today. Category: temporal.

m̃el1   vintr. float.

m̃el2   vintr. escape, slip out of one's hands, fall off.

m̃elm̃el   adj. weak, to be.

m̃eltig   prep. close, next to.

mem   vintr. piss.

me   vtr. urinate, piss. This is a transitive form of the intransitive verb mem, one of the small set of couplets in which a distinction between an intransitive and transitive stem can be made.

memelim   n. shellfish sp. Mauritian Conch, also general term for Cones. Strombus decorus decorus, Conidae. Category: aquatic creatures.

menal   n. fish sp. Barracudas also menalmiel. Sphyraenidae.

mer1   aux. again, in turn, then.

mer2   vintr. numb, cramped, to be.

mer3   n. moth species, a brown moth. See: tagralim. Category: insects, grubs etc..

meramok   n. fish sp.which lives in anenomes, and moves in and out of them.

mermer   Variant: mer. rule.

vintr. rule, as of a chief ruling a village. See: mrag.

mes   vintr. play, as in play a game, or play music. See: nameswen.

met1   adj. 1 • raw, to be.

2 • unripe.

met2   vintr. choose, as in choosing a wife.

metmaat   n. conjunctivitus, pussy eyes (lit: dead eyes).

metm̃akur   adj. selfish.

metmatu   vintr. wise, to be.

nametmatuan   n. knowledge. See: tae; ntaewen.

metmatur1   n. sensitive grass. Mimosa pudica. Category: plants.

metmatur2   adj. sleepy.

metp̃akor   vambi. forget.

m̃etu   vintr. sneeze.

mgal1   n. shell, large mother of pearl shell.

mgal2   v. pull out.

miel   adj. red. Category: colours.

m̃iit   n. mat. Category: human artefact.

mil   adj. wild.

m̃ilo   adj. dirty, to be. nam̃ilo is 'dirt'. Category: natural features.

mimi   vintr. suckle, breastfeed. See: sus.

min   vambi. drink.

minrog   vambi. taste a drink, try by tasting. See: pamnrog.

mir   vintr. dye hair.

misleo   n. voice, tune. Category: body part or product.

m̃it   adj. short, to be.

mkal   n. ant. See: tup̃roor. Category: insects, grubs etc..

m̃la   yawn; growl.

mla   vintr. bad, to be; of food.

m̃la   vintr. 1 • yawn.

2 • noise a devil makes when talking.

mlaanr   adj. cold, cool.

mlaap   adj. final, last. Category: numeral.

mlag   vintr. break, like a wave in the ocean. See: tfarer.

mlakes   adj. blue, to be. Category: colours.

m̃lakon   adj. sour, food that has gone off, like yesterday's kava.

mlapuas   n. owl, kind of owl (type of bird). See: malp̃erik; sokfal. Category: birds.

m̃latkon   adj. sour, not as bitter as kookon. See: kookon.

m̃lato   n. Vanuatu Fruit dove (type of bird). Ptilinopus tannensis. Category: birds.

mlau   n. Incubator bird, likes hiding under napukmokul tree, building its nest in the rottentree trunk. Megapodius freycinet. Category: birds.

mlees   adj. pink, to be. Category: colours.

mleomiel   n. yam, type of yam. Category: plants.

mletik   Variant: muletik. tip toes. Variant: m̃letik.

vintr. walk on tip toes.

mlil   vintr. roll.

m̃nam̃on p̃ok   adj. orange colour, to be. Category: colours.

m̃nam̃on   adj. yellow, to be. Category: colours.

m̃ok   v. pull out.

vambi. pull out.

mokur   Variant: makur. skinny.

adj. skinny, also makurkur. See: mrara.

m̃ol1   vambi. squeeze, like squeezing kava or oranges.

m̃ol2   vintr. 1 • live, alive, of a living being, but can also be used e.g. of a volcano.

2 • healthy. Used of a person who is well, not sick.

mol   vintr. hunt (for coconut crab only).

m̃olm̃ol   n. testicles. Category: body part or product.

m̃oltao   vambi. rinse clothes. See: preitao; pnultao.

mom   pron. ours (1st person plural exclusive direct possessive). See: mam.

mon   n. fish sp. Name recorded in the 1960s, but not known today.

m̃on   vintr. swim under water.

m̃ool   n. orange. Citrus sinensis. m̃ool fes is the native orange (Macroptera) whose juice is drunk but not highly valued. Category: plants.

m̃or   vintr. submerge, as in a canoe filled with water but still floating. See: tut.

m̃ori   n. true. See: til; tilm̃ori.

m̃orm̃rom   vintr. stage of growth of plant just before buds.

mos   vambi. carry inside something, like in a canoe, a wheelbarrow, or a car.

m̃osus   vintr. withdraw, pull back, like an anemone.

mot   vambi. bind. See: motsok.

motsok   vambi. tie. See: mot.

motu   adj. old.

1 • old.

2 • dense, of trees in a forest.

mp̃agon   n inposs. 1 • buttocks.

2 • end, furthest point of something. See: nametp̃ag.

mpak   n. banyan, varieties of banyan are called mpakaul, mpak m̃aau. Category: plants.

mpaklep   n. Anemone that lives in the sand. See: nrimen. Category: aquatic creatures.

mp̃akron   Variant: mp̃akor. lid.

n inposs. lid, its.

mpakur ni elau   n. tree, Tamanu. Calophyllum inophyllum. Category: plants.

mpakur ni euut   n. tree, 'false Tamanu'. Note: fruit may be eaten (Tanna, Paama and Vanua Lava) but in other parts it is not eaten. Garcinia pseudoguttifera. Category: plants.

mpakus   n. bush (generic). Category: plants.

mpal   n. tree, Milkwood Tree. Tall tree used to make canoes. Bark used to be used for making cloth. Antiaris toxicaria. Category: plants.

mpalag   v. sleep on top of something.

mpamun   Variant: mpam. shoulder. Variant: npam.

n inposs. shoulder. Category: body part or product.

m̃p̃aron   Variant: m̃p̃ar. side.

n inposs. 1 • side.

2 • side of face. MacDonald (late 1800s) has bora as the sides of the face and temple which women used to cut and tear open with sharp shells during mourning. Category: body part or product.

mpasok   vambi. to hold a mat flat using a rock while weaving.

mpasul   v. lie down among some things, e.g. mapsul nkal 'to lie among a heap of clothes'.

mpatur   v. to go through a group of things, e.g., mpatur natam̃ol - 'go through a group of people'.

m̃p̃auwak   n. shellfish sp. Tuberose Rock-shell. Thais bitubercularis. Category: aquatic creatures.

mra napuen   n inposs. spinal column.

mra nm̃ap̃   n. Giant moray eel. Gymnothorax javanicus. Category: aquatic creatures.

mra tfei   n. banded snake eel which lives in the sand and is not eaten. Category: aquatic creatures.

mra1   n. eel (generic). mra p̃anuk lives among stones. mra mtamok is eaten. (No further identification for these two named eels).

mra ni nai   n. freshwater eel.

mra ni ntas   n. moray eel, (also: mra maat, mra tfei). Category: aquatic creatures. See: takto.

mra2   vintr. bleed.

mrag   vambi. rule, as of a chief ruling a village. See: mermer.

mrakor   Variant: mirakor. trap.

n. trap, animal trap.

mram   adj. clear.

1 • light, clear.

2 • Christian times, the 'light'.

mrara   adj. thin.

1 • thin, for example of a thin person. See: mokur.

2 • shallow, of water.

mrer   vintr. die down (of fire). Category: natural features.

mro   vintr. think. See: mroperkati. Variant: mromromro.

mroperkat   vintr. imagine, remember. See: mro.

mropir   vambi. dislike.

mroput   vintr. worry, be troubled, feel burdened.

mrotae   vambi. recognise by thinking about something. See: letae; nrogtae.

msag   vambi. fetch.

msai   v. to have holes in it. See: msaisei.

msaisei   adj. holey, full of holes, like a tin roof with lots of holes in it.

msak   Variant: masak. sick.

vintr. sick. namsaki is 'sickness, disease'.

msal   adj. different, to be.

mtaatak   vambi. look after, hold onto (guard for oneself).

mtafus   adj. stupid.

mtak   vintr. fear.

mtakseu   n. carpenter.

m̃tal   vambi. harvest.

mtalu   vambi. choose. See: tiptip.

mtapes   n. orphan. Category: human relations.

mtar   vintr. set, go down of the sun (for the moon use tanun. Category: natural features. See: tanun.

mtas   vambi. scratch.

mtastes   adj. scratched, skin scratched by something.

mtel   v. fire glowing, having been burning brightly (sor) but no longer. See: sor; nfag.

mten   adj. heavy.

namtenwen   n. weight.

mtet   adj. rotten, e.g., of wood, or tin roof, but not of food. See: p̃o.

mtir   1 • write.

vambi. write, paint.

namtirwen   n. writing.

mtirtir   adj. coloured, striped.

mtulep   n. wife.

1 • wife, also nmatu. Category: human relations.

2 • spirit, respectful way of referring to a female spirit. Category: other supernatural.

3 • woman, old woman deserving of respect.

mu   vintr. high tide, to be high tide. See: maat; puk.

mukal   Variant: mkal. sharp.

adj. sharp. See: pkal.

mukalkal   Variant: mkalkal. itch, be itchy.

vintr. itch, be itchy.

namkalkal   n. itch. Category: body part or product.

m̃ul   vambi. peel.

1 • peel, strip bark. As in stripping hibiscus branches (nap̃lel) to make string.

2 • slough.

m̃ulm̃ul   vintr. flake, peel, e.g. of skin, or paint.

munwei   n. doctor, healer, magician. Category: human relations. See: kulru; kulmam.

mur1   vambi. want. See: namurien; na.

mur2   vintr. smile, laugh.

mtamurmur   vintr. smile a little, giggle.

mus   pron. 1 • you (2nd person plural Object).

2 • your (2nd person plural inclusive possessive).

mut   vambi. greedy, keeping something for yourself.

mutrei   Variant: mitei. fermented breadfruit.

n. fermented breadfruit (archaic form not known today but found in writing on South Efate from the 1950s). Category: plants.

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